Recent studies reveal that our young people in their pre-adolescent through college years are self-reporting dramatic increases in stress, anxiety and depression. The incidence of suicides among young people in this age range has never been higher. Some months ago, Susan Clayton and I, separated by an international border and 3 times zones, decided to collaborate on a response to this increasingly alarming trend. While not the only cause of such emotional stress, we decided to write for parents and focus on what we knew best… schools, schooling and learning. Midway through our project, Susan’s husband was diagnosed with advanced cancer. He died this past week.
This piece is dedicated to Robert and Susan Clayton. Throughout Robert’s treatment Susan remained steadfast in her love and support for both her husband and her children. Her commitment and her concern for helping parents understand how they might positively support their children during this critical age remained unchanged. This piece reflects our combined thinking. The good thoughts come from Susan. The mistakes in writing are solely mine.
This is a long piece. Readers familiar with my efforts here in this blog space will know that I try very hard not to waste yourt time. My writings on leadership and my rants on the folly of the decades of misguided education reform pale in comparison with the importance of the challenges to the mental, social and emotional health of our children. I hope you’ll hang in there. Thank you.
“What’s Lost When We Rush Kids Through Childhood”, Emily Kaplan – Edutopia, George Lucas Educational Foundation, September 4, 2019
“We Have Ruined Childhood” – “For youngsters these days, an hour of free play is like a drop of water in the desert. Of course they’re miserable.”- Kim Brooks, NY Times Sunday Review, August 17, 2019
“Teen Depression and Anxiety: Why the Kids Are Not Alright”, Susanna Schrobsdorff, Time, November 2019.
Unfortunately, many parents see such headlines and are not surprised. Far too many parents are living each day with the concerns reflected in this sampling of headlines. Too many parents see their children floundering emotionally, socially and academically. They are feeling overwhelmed and are often at a loss about what they can do to help their children regain their emotional, social and academic balance.
It doesn’t have to be this way. We, both as educators and as parents, cannot continue to sacrifice the mental, social and emotional health of our children for a future that does not require intense test preparation for large scale assessments, an underdeveloped appreciation for the arts and little or no experience with unstructured play . The studies listed above and the research currently being explored are sending us signals that are both loud and clear. We’ve unintentionally allowed schooling to become something that was never intended. While this may have been understandable in the early 1900’s, given our current advances in brain research and learning, there is only one excuse for its continuation… our unwillingness to change what we’re used to, coupled with our acceptance of the notion that purpose of education is not learning , but primarily to serve the economy with qualified workers.
Our goal in writing this is to help us as adults, as parents, as educators respond to this change in the way our kids experience the world. Our goal is both to sound an alarm and to offer concrete suggestions for actions. We simply cannot continue to sacrifice the physical, social and emotional health of our children.
We decided in this work to focus on one part of each child’s life: time spent in school. This is not an attack on the educators, the people who care about and for your children. It’s what we know best and school-related issues surface regularly in discussions with young people as a major source of their emotional stress.
The data about the alarming growth of pre-adolescent and adolescent stress, anxiety, and depression frighten us. We’ve all experienced school. But most of us have experienced school in a very different way than the way our kids are now living it. This is an invitation for parents to re-think what has become of schooling and the purpose of schooling in children’s lives… a purpose that does not rob them of their childhood and push them towards depression and anxiety. Although there is general agreement that school is about learning and preparation for life, there is surprisingly little agreement about what learning actually is, how it occurs and the best ways for it to happen. Based on our own learning experiences we’d like to invite you to treat this work as an interactive process, one which will both inform you and guide you to action-based responses.
You might consider reading the entire piece and then returning to do a little “homework” or you may just dive right in. Your call. How you chose to do this may tell you something about the way you feel you learn best.
We’ve considered this approach carefully. First we’ll start with the easy question… “What is learning?” Wait! What? Everybody knows what learning is. OK. So write down what you think. For most of us, this just got a lot harder. So many possibilities.
Here’s a suggestion. Take a few minutes to consider what you have learned or are currently learning; select 1-2 things. Think about how you came to know or are coming to know these things and if these things are useful, meaningful for your life? Now, answer the “what is learning” question based on your personal learning. Write your response down and be aware of how your thinking likes coming out of your brain and onto paper – or word processor. You may discover that, like me, you find the thinking part easier than the writing part.
The second question is equally big… “Is school the only place where learning occurs between the ages of 5 and 18? Well, that answer is kind of obvious, so maybe a better question might be “What’s the purpose of school?”
Try this: think of a time when you learned a skill or about an idea outside of school: (ride a bike, learn about worms while helping a parent garden, swim, make a blade of grass sing between your hands….) – how did you do that without the support of school? What were some of the conditions that helped you learn? Were you rushed into learning the skill or idea; who helped you? What did your mistakes tell you? How did you feel when you realized you figured out worms, rode the bike a block without wobbling…realized that a 10 cent piece was smaller than a 5 cent piece but worth more…?
Now think of a time when you were in school and you were struggling or felt overwhelmed – maybe the idea or skill was unfamiliar; maybe too many instructions coming all at once; maybe the teacher moved through the lesson too fast? Did you learn what you thought you were supposed to learn? If not, how did you feel?
What kids say…
I recently interviewed some high school students about what their learning experiences in school looked like. The kids were a cross section of the school’s enrollment…there were two kids enrolled in special needs programming, a couple of honor roll students, a couple of what I’ll affectionately describe as “ne’er-do-wells” – kids who spent a fair amount of time with the principal negotiating reductions in disciplinary reactions to their behaviors. The remaining 6 considered themselves “average”. After explaining that I was there to learn about their school, I asked them to pretend that they were the only people I would speak to in order to get a picture of their school and asked them to tell what it was important that I know. I also told them that I would be sharing their descriptions with their teachers the following day (without identifying them, of course).
What did I hear from these consumers of schooling? One of the special needs students began by sharing that she appreciated how good her teachers were about adjusting instruction to her needs, watching to see if she was “getting it” and offering more time/support if needed. A young lady excitedly raised her hand and said, “You’re lucky! My teachers spend so much time getting us ready to take the big tests that they apologize for not having more time for our questions.” Lots of head nodding followed by another young lady who shared how embarrassed she felt when she didn’t know an answer and how she was reluctant to ask questions for fear of seeming stupid. More head nodding and no objections. After a few seconds of silence a young man raised his hand and asked, “Why do we have to learn stuff that we just going to forget?”
My takeaway from this conversation… kids have only a limited sense of what Martin Luther King called “someoneness”” or sense of belonging. They feel pressured by adult concerns. Beyond their circle of friends they feel isolated. They feel pressured to do well, while not having access to the conditions (safety, freedom to ask questions, choice in learning) to perform as expected.
On a personal level, do your children have these experiences like this in school? How does it make them feel? What if these feelings have become a part of their daily school experience? What if the feelings that some of us had as students some of time have become a constant in the lives of our children? What if the pressures that have accompanied our need not to be identified as “failing” have had a number of unintended consequences…an increase in pressure to perform on large scale assessments, an increase in the time spent on test preparation, a loss of experiences in the arts, an earlier introduction of “academic” focus at the expense of playtime, recess creating, inventing, solving problems etc.?
The articles shared, as well as numerous others, make a clear connection between the practices identified above (that are responses to increased academic pressures) and the deterioration of the mental and emotional health of our children? In spite of this growing awareness, we hang on to what we know, we feel most comfortable with the familiar.
But what if holding on to “the familiar” – i.e., school as we knew it – will just continue to place our kids at increasing risk of stress, anxiety, depression, etc.? Is our fear of change, of venturing into the unfamiliar, greater than our concern for the well-being of our kids? What percentage of kids experiencing anxiety and depression is sufficient to act? 60%, 70%, 80%?
Note that the Times article cites a study which revealed that 70% of teenagers characterized anxiety/depression as a “major problem”. Is that enough?
Doing the wrong thing “righter”
We do not need to heap the kinds of pressures described here on our kids. For the broadest view of this issue, I’ll begin with Russell Ackoff. Prior to his death in 2009, Ackoff was a Professor Emeritus of Management Science at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. He has offered a starting point for what we might consider in response to the threats impacting the emotional and social health of our children. Ackoff is well-known for making the following distinction… There is a difference between ‘doing things right’ and ‘doing the right thing.’ Doing things right is about efficiency – i.e., how do we manage lots of kids in a school building safely and efficiently. We do this through the establishment of uniformity. We group kids by age not because they are similar but because it is convenient. We organize instruction by subject, not because the world is neatly organized by subject but because it is convenient (and because someone in 1893 decided we should). Doing the right thing is about effectiveness.
Our current system of education here in the U.S. is replete with stories of attempts to doing things right, school consolidation, common core standards, large-scale “accountability” assessments, etc. As Ackoff points out, it should surprise no one that these efforts have born little fruit. In his own words, Ackoff notes that focusing on doing things right just makes the situation “wronger”. After 30+ years of doing school right NAEP schools remain flat, ACT scores are falling, achievement gaps continue and instances of childhood stress, anxiety, and depression have reach nearly epidemic proportions!
But what is the right thing?
Here we’ll turn to Clark Aldrich who has suggested that there are three purposes for education… to help kids learn how to learn, to help kids learn how to do, and to help kids learn how to be. These three things constitute Ackoff’s definition of doing the right thing. In the context of our focus here, think ‘helping kids learn how to be.’ Obviously, given the current incidence of student and physician reported stress, anxiety and depression we need a shift in focus away from the ever increasing focus on higher academic achievement to the “how to be”. In his film Eighth Grade, Bo Burnham’s title character describes her dilemma as follows… “I feel like I’m rebuilding a parachute while I’m falling. I’m one person when I sit with my friends at lunch in school, another when I’m in the car with my dad, another when I’m at a party with my friends, and even another when I’m on Facebook.”
Note: See Clark Aldrich, Unschooling Rules: 55 Ways to Unlearn What We Know About Schools and Rediscover Education.
For more background on the issue of stress, anxiety, depression in our kids and how school contributes, you might find Dr. David Gleason’s book, At What Cost: Defending Adolescent Development In Fiercely Competitive Schools, useful.
For an interesting piece written by parents (Adam Grant, Allison Sweet Grant), you might be interested in Stop Trying to Raise Successful Kids…And start raising kind ones.
While not specifically about stress and anxiety, the authors note that kids take their cues about what matters by watching what adults seem to value… most frequently identifying achievement as the most desirable accomplishment. They are particularly interested in the development of caring, kindness and empathy in what has been termed our “Age of Separation”. The connection between their thinking and our focus on how we, as adults whether parent or educator, contribute to the rise of stress in their lives of our kids seems obvious.
But what can I do as a parent to insure that my child’s school is willing to explore the ways in which their policies, practices, and procedures may be unintentionally increasing the levels on stress and anxiety in students?
Leveraging Parental Concerns to Change Schooling – The “How To” section
In a time of increasing complexity, crammed schedules, split families, our own issues of separation, belonging and work pressures, we have been more than willing to turn over the 5-6 hours our kids are in school to the people who are charged by law with acting as their parents for that time. By law, our schools are required to act “in loco parentis”… in the place of parents. In trying to do things right, too many schools are doing things/creating environments that as parents, we would never do. They continue to focus on test scores, orderly buildings, convenient practices, etc. while largely ignoring the impact these practices are having on our children.
Their pressures and schedules are frequently no less crammed and stressful than ours. As parents we need to begin the conversations needed to help us identify the right thing/move away from our preoccupation with doing things right to a focus on doing the right thing. How do we do that?
Recognize that schools are part of a system and that change in systems grows increasingly more difficult the longer the system is in place.
Peter Senge in his best selling book, The Fifth Discipline, focuses on the process of changing systems. Senge notes that systems can be depicted as circles, the walls of which become thicker as the system ages. He suggests that the thicker the walls of the system become, the harder it is to make.
As many of us can attest, trying to crash through the walls of a mature system results in a lot of bumps and bruises but very little change. Senge offers a solution. He suggests that the walls of most systems are not uniformly thick… that in each system there exists a weakness in the wall that may allow the opportunity for leveraging that weakness into change or moving the system in a new direction. Your concerns, your interest, your involvement are that weakness. It’s hard for most schools to ignore concerned, well-informed, and well-intentioned parents.
Successful change efforts rely on finding ways to circumvent the natural response – i.e., to defend one’s position and to the reinforce such positions. Research in this area reveals that the reliance on fact-based speeches rarely changes deeply held beliefs. Successful change efforts have relied primarily on the creation of emotion-based experiences. What is more emotional than the reality that our kids are suffering and experiencing stress, anxiety and depression in record numbers?
What Can I do?
Emotion-based responses in school systems are more effective when they make more use of numbers of people than the eloquent words of a single, well-informed parent.
Step 1: Explore the concerns about social/emotional health with friends. Enlist the interest/support of the local parent organization. Consider the benefits of a social media presence/exploration.
Step 2: Build a group of people who are willing to address these concerns with school leaders in a focused conversation or, finding little or no receptivity from the school/district leaders, move this conversation to the level of the board of education at a public meeting by requesting time, in advance, to address the members of the board.
Step 3: Ask questions! Here are some critical sample questions that you might consider.
- What are the outcomes, attributes, dispositions we seek to develop in our students?
- Why do we have grades? – They are a largely meaningless convention, statistically invalid and unreliable. Why don’t we use narratives instead?
- What do we use as measures of success/achievement? Do we have a school-wide/district-wide consensus on the meaning of these terms?
- What is the basis for grades in our school?
- We know that kids develop at different rates and in different ways. Why do we group kids by age? –
- What options are available for my child to obtain official recognition for learning done outside of school?
- How many opportunities for self-directed learning are available in the school day?
- Look at your school’s/district’s mission statement and ask what are the intentional practices aimed at the accomplishment of these goals? How is success measured?
- What intentional responses have been developed to combat increasing stress, anxiety and depression in our students? What practices, policies, procedures have we eliminated or modified?
While it seems clear to us that big changes are needed, not everyone is ready to just jump in. Dr. James Ryan in a commencement address at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (2016) offered a guide for exploring difficult/complex ideas. He offered guidance for when we are faced with very disturbing information and seeking to engage others in discussion.
He notes that an expected response to what we have offered in this essay might be…”What? Wait! – You mean that 70% of kids surveyed characterized anxiety/depression as a “major problem!” He suggests that productive discussions begin more often with questions than statements. Here are his suggestions for your consideration and use.
I wonder what we are doing in our families, in our schools, in our society that is causing this dramatic rise among our youth. I wonder if my kids feel like they belong at their school? I wonder what school policies/practices my kids find stressful?
I wonder what we could do differently in our families, in our schools, in our society that could make a difference. I wonder why we still have grades, age grouped classes, separate subjects? I wonder what would happen if, like some schools, we tried to eliminate them?
Couldn’t we at least try? Should we just keep doing what we are doing even though we know it’s making kids anxious?
How can we help one another?
What really matters? If the mental, social, emtotional health of our kids really matter shouldn’t we be able to see intentional policies, practices, and procedures in our schools that mirror that importance?
Wow Rich. I’m speechless. Excellent.
I’m so sorry to hear about Susan’s husband.